Difícil dativo… ☹ => ☺

Según mi experiencia, el caso gramatical más complicado para los estudiantes de alemán es el dativo.

1. ¿Qué es el dativo y cómo se utiliza?

La declinación alemana cuenta con 3 casos importantes (no explico el genitivo por ser innecesario en la vida cotidiana):

— el nominativo es el sujeto de la frase (y el que va a ambos lados del verbo sein),

— el acusativo es el complemento directo (= CD) y también se usa con preposiciones,

— el dativo, equiparándolo con el acusativo, es el complemento indirecto (= CI) y también se usa con determinadas preposiciones. El dativo tiene las siguientes formas:

Determinantes art. definido art. indefinido art. negativo
masculino dem einem keinem
femenino der einer keiner
neutro dem einem keinem
plural den keinen

Como se puede observar, las terminaciones (= la última letra) son siempre las mismas en cada género (solo que el artículo indefinido no existe en plural). Los artículos posesivos (mein, dein, sein, etc.) se declinan igual que kein. Estas terminaciones (la última letra) se repiten también en los pronombres personales (= pers.) y relativos (= rel.):

3.ª persona pers. rel. persona singular plural
masculino ihm dem primera mir uns
femenino ihr der segunda dir euch
neutro ihm dem
plural ihnen denen

Importante: en dativo plural, todas las palabras acaban en -en: determinantes, adjetivos e incluso los sustantivos añaden una -n sobre su plural normal (ejemplo: Ich gebe den netten Kindern einen Ball). Como los pronombres ya por sí acaban en -n, añaden -nen.

2. El dativo: uso con verbos frente a uso con preposiciones

El dativo tiene 2 funciones completamente distintas: (1) En una oración, quien reina sobre el resto de la frase es el verbo (también llamado predicado porque predica cómo ha de estructurarse la frase). En este sentido, el verbo solo se deja conjugar por el nominativo (sujeto), afecta (o hace sufrir la acción) directamente al acusativo (una cosa), y afecta indirectamente (entrega el CD) al dativo (por lo que el CI siempre es una persona). Esta imagen visualiza dicha relación:

Ejemplo: Der eine Affe (Nom.) GIBT dem anderen Affen (Dat.) eine Banane (Acc.).

Verbos de este tipo son: bringen, empfehlen, erklären, erzählen, geben, (ver)kaufen, (aus)leihen, sagen, schenken, schicken/senden, schreiben, stehlen/klauen, tragen, verbieten, wegnehmen, wünschen, zeigen.

En resumen: cuando hay 2 complementos, la cosa es el CD (Acc.) y la persona es el CI (Dat.), igual que en español (hay pocas excepciones).

Sin embargo, también hay verbos que solo quieren un complemento de dativo (y nunca de acusativo): ähneln, fehlen, folgen, gefallen, gehören, gehorchen, es geht, glauben, gratulieren, passen, passieren, schaden, schmecken, vertrauen, wehtun. Estos verbos, desgraciadamente, hay que aprendérselos de memoria, pero al menos es un número reducido de verbos y, además, en muchos casos, los verbos correspondientes en español llevan también CI.

Ejemplo: Das Auto gehört meinem Vater. (El coche le pertenece a mi padre.)

(2) Uso con preposiciones: Hay un grupo de preposiciones que siempre, sin excepción, llevan dativo (¡ojo, esto ya no tiene nada que ver con el uso como complemento indirecto!). Las preposiciones de dativo: aus, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu, außer, gegenüber. Es decir con estas preposiciones, siempre hemos de usar las formas de los determinantes y pronombres de arriba. (Conociendo esta regla, resulta obvio por qué no puede haber nunca *von die). Aquí te dejo 2 ayudas mnemotécnicas para recordar mejor las preposiciones de dativo:

  1. Una canción infantil, con la conocida melodía de «Martinillo» (o Frère Jacques en francés). Aquí puedes escucharla aunque el chico no sea el mejor cantante… ;)
  2. Una palabra inventada: la princesa Aubegemina von Absezu. Aquí puedes verla.

Aparte de estas preposiciones, hay un segundo grupo que también lleva dativo, pero solo en un determinado contexto verbal. Se trata de las preposiciones de cambio. Pero este tema lo explicaré en otro artículo… Fuente de la imagen, ligeramente modificada. (Se trata de otro buen artículo sobre el mismo tema, escrito en inglés.)

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Examinador oficial ☺

Gracias al Colegio Alemán de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria he tenido la oportunidad de realizar en el centro examinador del Instituto Goethe, durante el curso 2015-2016, un curso de formación para convertirme en examinador oficial. Y eso con gran éxito, pues ya puedo examinar a alumnos de alemán desde el nivel A1 hasta kokosgallery el C2. Por eso, quiero dar las gracias, por un lado, al Colegio Alemán por haberme dado esta posibilidad, así como por haberme enseñado tantas cosas del ámbito de la pedagogía y la enseñanza de alemán a niños.

Por otro lado, y muy especialmente, quiero dar las gracias a Stefan Kammrath que me abrió muchas puertas, por ejemplo, para dar clases a adultos en el mencionado centro examinador y para participar en los exámenes oficiales que el Instituto Goethe realiza en ese colegiovideotube una vez al año. En este sentido, muchas gracias y … ¡a corregir exámenes! ☺

Baño checo lingüístico

Tras una semana de inmersión lingüística y cultural en Praha, he podido hacerme una imagen de cerca de esta lengua (sobre cuyas palabras sin vocales ya publiqué un artículo corto). «notářsky ověřené záznamy svých» Al principio, lo que más me llamó la atención eran los múltiples signos diacríticos que encontramos en cada palabra: acentos agudos (á, é, í, ó, ú, ý), háček(ě, č, ř, š, ň, ž, ď, ť) y un círculo sobre la u (ů).

  1. El acento agudo no indica la sílaba acentuada como en español ni la apertura de una vocal como en francés, sino que indica que esa vocal es laaarga. Lo curioso es, desde el punto de vista alemán, que todas las vocales de una palabra pueden ser largas (aunque no se encuentren dentro de la sílaba tónica). Un ejemplo es la palabra káva (‘café’), que por su vocal larga se distingue del cava español. La ů es larga también (donde puede variar en la grafía [por la declinación] con la o).
  2. El háček (‘ganchito’) o carón indica palatalización, es decir, la n se convierte en ň que se pronuncia igual que la ñ; la s se convierte en š (pronunciada como la sh inglesa); la z (pronunciada igual que en inglés) se convierte en ž (pronunciada como la j francesa); la c (pronunciada como ts) se convierte en č, pronunciada igual que la ch en español. La ě palataliza siempre la consonante precedente: ně = ñe, mě = mye, tě = tye, etc. Lo mismo sucede con las letras palatalizadas ď y ť (pronunciadas aproximadamente como las sílabas tiá-, diá-). Pero el sonido más típico del checo es la ř que se pronuncia como una r y una ž al mismo tiempo. Un sonido bastante difícil para todos los no checos (incluidos los eslovacos ;) ) …

Curiosidades

  1. El acento prosódico (la sílaba acentuada) suele estar al príncipio de la palabra, muy similar al alemán.
  2. Distinción entre h y ch: la h se pronuncia igual que en alemán e inglés, pero en checo existe también antes, después y entre consonantes (ojo: NO se pronuncia como la j española, es decir, no hay ningún roce o carraspeo en la garganta), sino que el sonido que se corresponde con la j española se escribe ch en checo (fonema: [x]). Esta distinción gadgetguru entre h y ch es la misma que en alemán.

Palabras y expresiones Hola/adiós = čao (ahoj es un poco más formal). Buenos días/buenas tardes = dobrý den (se puede usar todo el día), dobrý večer (buenas tardes después del anochecer). Buenas noches = dobrou noc (pronunciado /nots/) se dice solo para despedirse. Sí = ano (en Praga dicen también yo), no = ne (sirve también como prefijo negativo: nealkoholické [pivo] = [cerveza] sin alcohol). Gracias = děkuji /diékui/, por favor/de nada = prosím. Chinchín = na zdraví. ¿Cómo estás? — Bien. = Jak se máš? — Dobře. Además de palabras internacionales como policie, telefon(ní) y originalní he reconocido palabras similares al alemás como šunka (Schinken = jamón), špenat (Spinat = espinaca), žampion (champignon) y cibule (Zwiebel = cebolla). Ah, y me encantó zmrzlina. ;) Más frases en http://www.omniglot.com/language/phrases/czech.php