Examinador oficial ☺

Gracias al Colegio Alemán de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria he tenido la oportunidad de realizar en el centro examinador del Instituto Goethe, durante el curso 2015-2016, un curso de formación para convertirme en examinador oficial. Y eso con gran éxito, pues ya puedo examinar a alumnos de alemán desde el nivel A1 hasta kokosgallery el C2. Por eso, quiero dar las gracias, por un lado, al Colegio Alemán por haberme dado esta posibilidad, así como por haberme enseñado tantas cosas del ámbito de la pedagogía y la enseñanza de alemán a niños.

Por otro lado, y muy especialmente, quiero dar las gracias a Stefan Kammrath que me abrió muchas puertas, por ejemplo, para dar clases a adultos en el mencionado centro examinador y para participar en los exámenes oficiales que el Instituto Goethe realiza en ese colegiovideotube una vez al año. En este sentido, muchas gracias y … ¡a corregir exámenes! ☺

La pronunciación de la j (en alemán y otras lenguas)

Super-j

Curiosa letra, la jota, pues su pronunciación varía muchísimo entre las lenguas que conozco (completamente al contrario de la de sus vecinos: la i [que cambia mucho solo en inglés] y la k).

En latín, la j —que procede de la ιώτα (Ι, ι) griega, una i sin punto— se utilizaba en la grafía como simple variación de la i, aunque terminó consolidándose la grafía con j al principio de palabra: latín iustus => justus => español justo/francés juste.

Este ajuste ortográfico puede estar relacionado con un cambio de la pronunciación. Parece que la j, encontrándose al principio de la palabra, se había terminado distinguiendo de la i por su pronunciación fricativa (similar a la diferencia entre la i y la y españolas), aunque más marcado: [dʒ], como la pronunciación italiana de gi (y la inglesa de «j»), por lo que en italiano, la palabra justo se escribe giusto (ortografía preferida por esta lengua en windowskeys.net detrimento de la grafía con j, que no existe en italiano moderno).

En francés y portugués, la pronunciación de la j perdió su momento oclusivo [d], quedándose en [ʒ], tal como se conoce hoy día (já, déjà, journal). En español, sin embargo, la pronunciación cambió por completo: a [x]. Este es el símbolo fonético internacional del sonido de la j española (compárese con la grafía arcaizante de los siguientes nombres propios: México, Oaxaca, Texas [topónimos], Ximénez, Luxán [apellidos], Axarquía [región de Andalucía] y Maxorata [marca de queso de Fuerteventura = «Majorata, nombre indígena de la isla» ©RAE]).

Respecto a la j en alemán, se ha quedado en la pronunciación como una i según la siguiente fórmula

i + vocal (en la pronunciación) = j + vocal (en la grafía)

De ahí, las palabras Justus, just, Januar, Jura (Jurist/juristisch, Justiz), Jubel, ja, je, Jahr, jeder, Jogurt, Jojo (excepción: Ion). Por analogía con «encontrarse delante de otra vocal», escribimos j (con el sonido de la i) también en medio de 2 vocales como en Maja, Soja. En alemán, esta letra no existe al final de palabra ni delante de consonantes.

Sin embargo, por su «posición limítrofe», es decir, al principio de palabra o separando 2 vocales, hay una pequeña diferencia con la pronunciación de la i de in, immer: le falta el «momento de cierre de epiglotis» de la i cuando está sola (cuando dices Inma, igual te darás cuenta de que, de forma inconsciente, abres la epiglotis para decir la i). Por tanto, la j en alemán se pronuncia igual que el diptongo español «ie» de la palabra b-ien, solo sin la b, o como la i de la palabra parano-ia.

Por todas las explicaciones de arriba, no proceden ni valen y dificultan la comprensión pronunciaciones similares a la j inglesa (de job), el dígrafo italiano gi (de giusto) o la y española (de yo, yoyo, yumbo). (Palabras españolas que más se asemejan a la pronunciación de la j en alemán albuy windows 10 key principio de palabra son: hiato y hiena.) Con este artículo rectifico mi error cometido (en la j) en el siguiente vídeo y pido perdón. ;)

(Fuente de la imagen de arriba.)

Un miniproyecto empírico

Lenguas evaluadas

Resumen

1) ¿Qué quiero averiguar? → ¿Hay una diferencia entre la autopercepción y la percepción ajena? (Hipótesis: la hay.)

2) ¿Cómo voy a hacerlo? → 1) Autoevaluarme con los descriptores de los distintos niveles del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las Lenguas (MCER), 2) mandar una encuesta a unas 20 personas para evaluarme cheap windows 10 key con los mismos descriptores dem MCER. 3)

¿Por qué? → Hoy día, conocimientos de lenguas extranjeras son imprescindibles en este mundo globalizado, el mercado laboral resultante y una Europa cada vez más grande, importante y unida. Para evaluar o demostrar estos conocimientos es difícil disponer de los diplomas correspondientes y actualizados para todas las lenguas extranjeras que uno habla. Para mejorar y agilizar esta situación, la Comisión Europea desarrolló el pasaporte de lenguas basado en la autoevaluación. Sin embargo, muchas veces suele haber una mayor o menor diferencia entra la evaluación/percepción propia y la ajena.

El pasaporte de lenguas de la Comisión Europea

Se trata de un instrumento para autoevaluar el nivel que uno tiene en lenguas extranjeras que sabe. Mediante los 6 niveles del MCER con descriptores formulados a modo de «puedo [decir/expresar]…» se pueden evaluar 5 destrezas distintas para cada lengua extranjera. Además, hay un apartado para rellenar con los diplomas obtenidos en cada lengua, así como 2 apartados para describir estancias en el extranjero y el tipo de contacto que windowskeys se ha tenido con hablantes de una lengua. Sin embargo, creo que puede haber una diferencia entre la autopercepción y la percepción ajena.

Respecto a las lenguas extranjeras, esto significaría que uno puede evaluarse mejor o también peor de lo que lo harían otras personas hablantes de es lengua. Por este motivo, tras rellenar mi pasaporte de lenguas, creé una encuesta breve para evaluar las 4 destrezas principales (hablar, escuchar, leer, escrbir), cada de una de las cuales consta de los 6 niveles con los descriptores del MCER (pero no en la primera persona, sino en la tercera: «Alex puede …»). Esta encuesta se la envié a unos 25 amigos procedentes de distintos países (excepto Alemania, por supuesto) para que me evaluasen.

Resultado

En total, participaron 14 amigos evaluando 5 de 6 lenguas extranjeras (v. gráfico arriba) de la siguiente forma: Posteriormente, realicé una comparación de estos datos con los míos del pasaporte de lenguas: Conclusión En mi caso, siendo el único sujeto de este miniestudio, se observa un diferencia muy pequeña entre la autoevaluación y la ajena, consistiendo en una infravaloración por mí mismo en comparación con los datos de los evaluadores ajenos. En algunos casos, sin embargo, las dos percepciones coinciden. Basándome en estos datos, creo que la autoevaluación puede ser bastante acertada si uno lee atentamente los descriptores de los nivels y es sincero a la hora de elegir un nivel para sus propios conocimientos lingüísticos. ¿Y tú, ya has rellenado el tuyo? ;)

Aprender alemán … ¡para siempre!

Grupos de alemán

Algunos grupos de alumnos que he tenido durante los últimos diez años. ¿Me encuentras en las fotos?

¿Qué significa aprender una lengua extranjera? Voy a ser sincero: aprender una lengua extranjera es un trabajo duro y fatigante, ¡pero vale la pena! ¿Por qué es duro y fatigante? Pues, porque tenemos que (aprender a) memorizar todo un inventario nuevo de palabras y las reglas de su combinación (= gramática), además de su pronunciación ajena a nuestra lengua nativa (es decir, el esfuerzo es doble: mental y físico, en la boca). Y lo peor: una vez se empieza, ¡no se termina nunca de aprenderla del todo! Además de ese esfuerzo consciente, tenemos que dedicarle muuuuucho tiempo al estudio de esa nueva lengua, si es posible, todos los días aunque solo sean 10 minutos al día. Pero lo mejor sería «empaparse» de esa lengua, escuchando la radio, viendo vídeos y películas, leyendo libros y artículos, usándola en las redes sociales, intentando conocer hablantes de esa lengua o poniendo los nombres de las cosas en papelitos por la casa para verlos todos los días. ¿Por qué es importante eso? Porque nos ayuda a aprender a entender esa lengua, practicarla y, así, memorizar las palabras y expresiones que tanto nos cuesta recordar a menudo. ¿Por qué vale la pena (ese esfuerzo, por no decir «sufrimiento», para) aprender una lengua extranjera? Una de las personas más políglotas de nuestros tiempos, Kató Lomb, da en su libro Polyglot, How I Learn Languages una respuesta contundente:
We should learn languages because language is the only thing worth knowing even poorly. If someone knows how to play the violin only a little, he will find that the painful minutes he causes are not in proportion to the possible joy he gains from his playing. The amateur chemist spares himself ridicule only as long as he doesn’t aspire for professional laurels. The man somewhat skilled in medicine will not go far, and if he tries to trade on his knowledge without certification, he will be locked up as a quack doctor. [Lomb, K. (2003). Polyglot, How I Learn Languages. TESL-EJ: Berkeley. P. 37.]

Yo llevo 24 años estudiando idiomas (inglés y francés en la escuela; español, italiano y portugués por mi cuenta; [latín en bachillerato;] francés y griego en la universidad; hice un curso de chino y, finalmente, turco, también por mi cuenta; aparte de tener conocimientos básicos (palabras, frases, leer el alfabeto, nociones de gramática) de neerlandés, rumano, catalán, polaco, ruso y coreano. Y solo puedo afirmar lo que dice la cita de arriba: vale la pena, ¡y mucho! Porque no se aprende solo una lengua, sino también su cultura, su gente y su modo de expresar en palabras el mundo que nos rodea.

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